In our daily life, we see many cans, such as beer cans, beverage cans, food cans, etc., so what materials are these cans made of? What are their differences?
There are two types of jar materials we have seen:
The alloy types generally used in the production of aluminum cans are 3104 alloy, 3105 alloy, 5052 alloy, 5182 alloy, etc.;
Metal cans are divided into two-piece cans and three-piece cans according to their structure;
The three-piece can is composed of three parts: the can body, the can bottom and the can lid;
The two-piece can is composed of two parts: the can lid and the integral seamless can body with the bottom, and the can body and the can lid are crimped;
When aluminum is used as material, it is mainly made into two-piece cans, and when tinplate is used as material, it is mainly made into three-piece cans. The difference between the two is mainly the manufacturing process of the can body.
More information：Aluminum Sheet/Coil For Cans
3104/3105/5052/5182 represent different aluminum alloy grades. 3104, 3105, 5052, and 5182 are four common materials for making cans. They have some differences in chemical composition and physical properties, but they can meet the different requirements of customers;
|Application||3104/3105 H18/H19 for cans body,3104/5052/5182 H48 for cans lid|
|1.Reducing the blank
The cutting-edge approach for making aluminum beverage cans is called two-piece drawing and wall ironing. The technique starts with an aluminum ingot which changed into cast to be approximately 30 inches (seventy six cm) thick, then rolled into a skinny sheet. The first step inside the actual manufacture of the can is to cut the sheet into a circle, known as a clean, in order to form the lowest and sides of the can. Each blank is five.Five inches (14 cm) in diameter. Some material is always The small ripples on the pinnacle of the metallic are called “ears”. “Earing” is an unavoidable effect of the crystalline structure of the aluminum sheet.
The small ripples on the pinnacle of the metallic are known as “ears”. “Earing” is an unavoidable impact of the crystalline structure of the aluminum sheet.
Lost between every circle, but manufacturers have discovered that minimum aluminum is lost whilst the sheets are huge enough to maintain two staggered rows of 7 blanks each. About 12-14% of the sheet is wasted, but may be reused as scrap. After the round clean is cut, it’s miles “drawn” or pulled up to form a cup three.Five inches (8.Nine cm) in diameter.
|2.Redrawing the cup
The small cup as a result of the initial draw is then transferred to a 2nd device. A sleeve holds the cup exactly in location, and a punch diminished rapidly into the cup redraws it to a diameter of approximately 2.6 inches (6.6 cm). The peak of the cup will increase simultaneously from the preliminary 1.3 to two.25 inches (three.Three to 5.7 cm). The punch then pushes the cup in opposition to three jewelry called ironing jewelry, which stretch and skinny the cup walls. This whole operation—the drawing and ironing—is done in a single non-stop punch stroke, which takes handiest one fifth of a 2d to complete. The cup is now about 5 inches (13 cm) excessive. Then any other punch presses up in opposition to the base of the cup, causing the lowest to bulge inward. This form counteracts the pressure of the carbonated liquid the can will incorporate. The bottom and lower walls of the can also are a bit thicker than the top partitions, for added power.
|3.Trimming the ears
The drawing and ironing process leaves the can slightly wavy on the pinnacle. These small ripples inside the metallic are known as “ears.” “Earing” is an unavoidable impact of the crystalline shape of the aluminum sheet. Aluminum agencies have studied this phenomenon drastically, and they had been capable to steer the position and peak of the ears with the aid of controlling the rolling of the aluminum sheet. Despite the fact that, some material is lost at this stage. Approximately a quarter inch is trimmed from the top of the can, leaving the higher walls immediately and stage.
|4.Cleaning and decorating
The drawing and ironing process leaves the outer wall of the can with a clean, shiny surface, so it does no longer require any in addition finishing inclusive of polishing. After the ears are trimmed, the can is cleaned and then imprinted with its label. After the can is adorned, it’s far squeezed in barely at the top to a make a neck, and the neck is given an out-ward flange at the very pinnacle facet, on the way to be folded over once the lid is introduced.
The lid is made of a slightly exceptional alloy than the aluminum for the bottom and facets of the can. The inward bulge of the bottom of the can facilitates it withstand the pressure exerted by the liquid inner it, however the flat lid have to be stiffer and more potent than the base, so it is fabricated from aluminum with extra magnesium and less manganese than the rest of the can. This effects in more potent steel, and the lid is significantly thicker than the walls. The lid is cut to a diameter of 2.1 inches (5.Three cm), smaller than the two.6-inch (6.6 cm) diameter of the partitions. The middle of the lid is stretched upward barely and drawn through a system to shape a rivet. The pull tab, a separate piece of metallic, is inserted underneath the rivet and secured by way of it. Then the lid is scored so that when the tab is pulled by using the purchaser, the metal will detach without problems and depart the right beginning.
To make certain that the cans are made nicely, they’re routinely checked for cracks and pinholes. One in 50,000 cans is typically found to be faulty.
|6.Filling and seaming
After the neck is formed, the can is prepared to be crammed. The can is held tightly against the seat of a filling system and a beverage is poured in. The lid is added. The top flange fashioned whilst the can become given its neck is then bent around the lid and seamed shut. At this point, the can is ready on the market.
Thickness: The aluminum alloy 5052 aluminum coil used for the can lid is flat, and the thickness control is more precise, and the thickness tolerance of ±0.005mm can be guaranteed to ensure the stability of the later processing.
Flatness: the strip does not allow obvious waves, the wave height within 1 meter does not exceed 3mm, and the wave does not exceed 3/m;
Side curvature: the side curvature of the product on any 2000mm length should not be greater than 0.5mm;
Terminal warpage: any product with a length of 1500mm is cut, and the height of the terminal warpage is ≤5mm;
Joints: No joints are allowed.
Surface: Severe air bubbles, paint leaks, scratches, corrosion, oil spots, peeling, streaks, color differences, mottled spots, roll marks, periodicity, etc. are not allowed to affect the appearance quality of the product, and the burrs are <=0.04mm;
End face: the end face is neat, tight without loose layer, staggered layer ≤ 2mm, tower shape ≤ 5mm;
In 1940, Europe and the United States began to sell beer in stainless steel cans. At the same time, the appearance of aluminum cans also became a leap in canning technology. In 1963, the can was invented in the United States. It inherited the shape and design characteristics of the previous cans, and a pop-top was designed on the top.
This is a revolution in the way of opening, which has brought great convenience and enjoyment to people, so it will be widely used soon. By 1980, the European and American markets basically adopted this aluminum can as the packaging form of beer and carbonated drinks. With the advancement of design and production technology, aluminum cans tend to be lightweight, from the initial 60 grams to about 21 to 15 grams in 1970.
Manufacturing techniques for aluminum soda cans have continued to improve over the decades. The weight of aluminum cans has been greatly reduced. In the early 1960s, the weight of every thousand aluminum cans (including cans and lids) reached 55 pounds (about 25 kilograms), and in the mid-1970s it dropped to 44.8 pounds (25 kilograms). kilogram), which was reduced to 33 pounds (15 kilograms) in the late 1990s, and has now been reduced to less than 30 pounds, which is nearly half that of 40 years ago.
In the 20 years from 1975 to 1995, the number of aluminum cans (capacity 12 ounces) made of 1 pound of aluminum increased by 35%. According to the statistics of the American ALCOA company, the aluminum required for every thousand aluminum cans decreased from 25.8 pounds in 1988 to 22.5 pounds in 1998 and 22.3 pounds in 2000.
American can manufacturers have continuously made breakthroughs in sealing machinery and other technologies, so the thickness of aluminum cans in the United States has dropped significantly, from 0.343 mm in 1984 to 0.285 mm in 1992 and 0.259 mm in 1998.
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