Temper of aluminum alloys

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Designation of temper is necessary for right selection of aluminum alloys, properties of which depend not only on their compositions but also on the heat treatment of the alloys and the cold work of the parts.

Temper designation of aluminum alloys

The temper designation system is used for both wrought and cast aluminum alloys.

Designation of temper is necessary for right selection of aluminum alloys, properties of which depend not only on their compositions but also on the heat treatment of the alloys and the cold work of the parts.

Temper Of Aluminum Alloys

Temper of aluminum alloys

What is aluminum alloy tempering

The Temper of aluminum alloys refers to the state in which the aluminum alloy material is kept at high temperature for a period of time before cooling to room temperature after heating, so that the structure in the alloy undergoes certain changes and adjustments. The tempering state of aluminum alloys can significantly affect the mechanical properties and other characteristics of the material.

The parameters of temper of aluminum alloys include tempering temperature, tempering time and tempering process. The tempering temperature depends on the composition and properties of the alloy, and the tempering time and tempering process depend on factors such as the thickness and shape of the material.

In the temper of aluminum alloys, the grains will grow and the grain boundaries will become wider. At the same time, due to the release of internal stress, the mechanical properties of the alloy such as hardness, strength and toughness will also change. In addition, the tempering state of aluminum alloy will also affect other properties such as corrosion resistance and wear resistance of the material.

Why choose aluminum alloy tempering correctly

In the process of manufacturing and processing aluminum alloy, it is very important to choose the appropriate tempering state. The choice of tempering condition should be determined according to the specific application and requirements to obtain the best material properties.

Detailed introduction of aluminum alloy tempering

Suffixes used for the temper designation system are separated from the alloy designation by a hyphen (examples: 2618-T61, 3003-H14, 1100-O, 6061-T6 aluminum alloy).

The temper designation system uses letters, determining the basic tempers and digits, following the letters, indicating the conditions of the basic tempers.

The temper designation scheme is shown in the figure.

What is H state tempering

Treatment H may use a third digit.

H_ _1 applies to products which are cold worked (strain hardened) less than amount required for a controlled H_ _ temper.

H112 applies to products which may acquire some temper from working at an elevated temperature and for which there are mechanical properties limits.

3003 H114 Aluminum Alloy

3003 h114 aluminum alloy

What is T state tempering

Treatments T1, T2, T5 and T10 start from cooling from elevated temperature shaping process (hot rolling, forging, extrusion etc.). This cooling is not very fast, therefore the treatment may be considered as partial solution treatment.

6061 T6 Aluminum Sheet

6061 t6 aluminum sheet

Treatment T may use additional digits (second, third and forth).

The second digit (not zero) may be added to T1…T10 for indication of a variation of heat treatment.

T_51, T_510, T_511 mean stress relief by stretching done after solution treatment or after cooling from elevated temperature shaping process.

T_52 means stress relief by compressing done after solution treatment or after cooling from elevated temperature shaping process.

T_54 means stress relief of die forgings by restriking cold in the finish die.

T_42, T_62 mean solution treatment from annealed (O) or as fabricated condition followed by natural (T_42) or artificial (T_62) aging.

Source of knowledge:Temper designation of aluminum alloys

Common tempering of different grades of aluminum alloys

The common tempering of different series of aluminum alloys are different, and the corresponding mechanical properties are also different;

Group Alloy Common Temper & Application
1000 series 1050
1060
1100
O: This is the annealed temper, which has the lowest strength and the highest ductility. It is commonly used for applications that require good formability, such as roofing and insulation.

H12: This is a strain-hardened temper with a quarter-hard rating. It has slightly higher strength than the annealed (O) temper and is commonly used for deep-drawing and spinning operations.

H14: This is a strain-hardened temper with a half-hard rating. It has higher strength than the H12 temper and is commonly used for applications that require moderate strength and good formability, such as sheet metal forming and welding.

H16: This is a strain-hardened temper with a three-quarters hard rating. It has higher strength than the H14 temper and is commonly used for applications that require higher strength and good formability, such as roofing and siding.

H18: This is a strain-hardened temper with a full-hard rating. It has the highest strength of all the strain-hardened tempers and is commonly used for applications that require high strength and good formability, such as kitchenware and utensils.

3000 series 3003
3004
3105
O: This is the annealed temper, which has the lowest strength and the highest ductility. It is commonly used for applications that require good formability, such as roofing and insulation.

H14: This is a strain-hardened temper with a half-hard rating. It has higher strength than the annealed (O) temper and is commonly used for applications that require moderate strength and good formability, such as sheet metal forming and welding.

H16: This is a strain-hardened temper with a three-quarters hard rating. It has higher strength than the H14 temper and is commonly used for applications that require higher strength and good formability, such as roofing and siding.

H18: This is a strain-hardened temper with a full-hard rating. It has the highest strength of all the strain-hardened tempers and is commonly used for applications that require high strength and good formability, such as kitchenware and utensils.

H22: This is a strain-hardened temper with a quarter-hard rating. It has slightly higher strength than the annealed (O) temper and is commonly used for deep-drawing and spinning operations.

3104 O: This is the annealed temper, which has the lowest strength and the highest ductility. It is commonly used for applications that require good formability, such as roofing and insulation.

H14: This is a strain-hardened temper with a half-hard rating. It has higher strength than the annealed (O) temper and is commonly used for applications that require moderate strength and good formability, such as sheet metal forming and welding.

H18: This is a strain-hardened temper with a full-hard rating. It has the highest strength of all the strain-hardened tempers and is commonly used for applications that require high strength and good formability, such as beverage cans and lids.

H19: This is a strain-hardened temper with a three-quarters hard rating. It has higher strength than the H18 temper and is commonly used for applications that require high strength and good formability, such as beverage cans and lids.

5000 series 5005
5052
O: This is the annealed temper, which has the lowest strength and the highest ductility. It is commonly used for applications that require good formability, such as roofing and insulation.

H32: This is a strain-hardened and stabilized temper with a quarter-hard rating. It has higher strength than the annealed (O) temper and is commonly used for applications that require moderate strength and good formability, such as sheet metal forming and welding.

H34: This is a strain-hardened and stabilized temper with a half-hard rating. It has higher strength than the H32 temper and is commonly used for applications that require higher strength and good formability, such as roofing and siding.

H36: This is a strain-hardened and stabilized temper with a three-quarters hard rating. It has higher strength than the H34 temper and is commonly used for applications that require higher strength and good formability, such as truck and trailer body panels.

H38: This is a strain-hardened and stabilized temper with a full-hard rating. It has the highest strength of all the strain-hardened and stabilized tempers and is commonly used for applications that require high strength and good formability, such as aerospace components.

5083 O: This is the annealed temper, which has the lowest strength and the highest ductility. It is commonly used for applications that require good formability, such as tank cars and shipbuilding.

H32: This is a strain-hardened and stabilized temper with a quarter-hard rating. It has higher strength than the annealed (O) temper and is commonly used for applications that require moderate strength and good formability, such as marine and offshore structures.

H116: This is a strain-hardened and stabilized temper with a magnesium content of at least 4%. It has higher strength than the H32 temper and is commonly used for applications that require high strength and excellent corrosion resistance, such as shipbuilding and structural applications.

H321: This is a strain-hardened and stabilized temper with a magnesium content of at least 4%. It has higher strength than the H116 temper and is commonly used for applications that require high strength and excellent corrosion resistance, such as marine and offshore structures.

5754 O: This is the annealed temper, which has the lowest strength and the highest ductility. It is commonly used for applications that require good formability, such as sheet metal forming and welding.

H111: This is a stress-relieved temper that is nearly identical to the annealed (O) temper. It is commonly used for applications that require good formability and high corrosion resistance, such as marine components.

H22: This is a strain-hardened and stabilized temper with a quarter-hard rating. It has higher strength than the annealed (O) temper and is commonly used for applications that require moderate strength and good formability, such as sheet metal forming and welding.

H32: This is a strain-hardened and stabilized temper with a quarter-hard rating. It has higher strength than the annealed (O) temper and is commonly used for applications that require moderate strength and good formability, such as sheet metal forming and welding.

H34: This is a strain-hardened and stabilized temper with a half-hard rating. It has higher strength than the H32 temper and is commonly used for applications that require higher strength and good formability, such as roofing and siding.

6000 series 6061 O: This is the annealed temper, which has the lowest strength and the highest ductility. It is commonly used for applications that require good formability and weldability, such as sheet metal forming and welding.

T4: This is a solution heat-treated temper, with lower strength and hardness than the T6 and T651 tempers. It is commonly used for applications that require good formability, such as tubing and structural components.

T6: This is a solution heat-treated and artificially aged temper, with the highest strength and hardness of all the tempers. It is commonly used for applications that require high strength and stiffness, such as aircraft and aerospace components, structural components, and automotive parts.

T651: This is a solution heat-treated and stress-relieved temper, which provides similar strength and hardness to the T6 temper, but with improved resistance to stress corrosion cracking. It is commonly used for applications that require high strength and resistance to corrosion, such as marine and offshore structures, and transportation components.

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